1. 34052.758756
    The Gelukpa (or Geluk) tradition of Tibetan Buddhist philosophy is inspired by the works of Tsongkhapa (1357–1419), who set out a distinctly nominalist Buddhist tradition that differs sharply from other forms of Buddhist thought not only in Tibet, but elsewhere in the Buddhist world. The negative dialectics of the Middle Way (madhyamaka) is the centerpiece of the Geluk intellectual tradition and is the philosophy that is commonly held in Tibet to represent the highest view. The Middle Way, a philosophy systematized in the second century by Nāgārjuna, seeks to chart a “middle way” between the extremes of essentialism and nihilism with the notion of two truths: the ultimate truth of emptiness and the relative truth of dependent existence.
    Found 9 hours, 27 minutes ago on Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  2. 34058.758824
    Joseph Butler is best known for his criticisms of the hedonic and egoistic “selfish” theories associated with Hobbes and Bernard Mandeville and for his positive arguments that self-love and conscience are not at odds if properly understood (and indeed promote and sanction the same actions). In addition to his importance as a moral philosopher Butler was also an influential Anglican theologian. Unsurprisingly his theology and philosophy were connected — his main writings in moral philosophy were published sermons, a work of natural theology, and a brief dissertation attached to that work. Although most of Butler’s moral arguments make rich use of passages from scripture and familiar Christian stories and concepts, they make little reference to — and depend little on the reader having — any particular religious commitments.
    Found 9 hours, 27 minutes ago on Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  3. 34145.758842
    This article follows on the introductory article “Direct Logic for Intelligent Applications” [Hewitt 2017a]. Strong Types enable new mathematical theorems to be proved including the Formal Consistency of Mathematics. Also, Strong Types are extremely important in Direct Logic because they block all known paradoxes[Cantini and Bruni 2017]. Blocking known paradoxes makes Direct Logic safer for use in Intelligent Applications by preventing security holes.
    Found 9 hours, 29 minutes ago on PhilSci Archive
  4. 69893.758857
    . As part of the week of recognizing R.A.Fisher (February 17, 1890 – July 29, 1962), I reblog a guest post by Stephen Senn from 2012/2017. The comments from 2017 lead to a troubling issue that I will bring up in the comments today. …
    Found 19 hours, 24 minutes ago on D. G. Mayo's blog
  5. 207027.758875
    Traditionally philosophical discussions on moral responsibility have focused on the human components in moral action. Accounts of how to ascribe moral responsibility usually describe human agents performing actions that have well-defined, direct consequences. In today’s increasingly technological society, however, human activity cannot be properly understood without making reference to technological artifacts, which complicates the ascription of moral responsibility (Jonas 1984; Waelbers 2009).[ 1 ] As we interact with and through these artifacts, they affect the decisions that we make and how we make them (Latour 1992).
    Found 2 days, 9 hours ago on Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  6. 264698.758896
    Autonomous agents are self-governing agents. But what is a self-governing agent? Governing oneself is no guarantee that one will have a greater range of options in the future, or the sort of opportunities one most wants to have. Since, moreover, a person can govern herself without being able to appreciate the difference between right and wrong, it seems that an autonomous agent can do something wrong without being to blame for her action. What, then, are the necessary and sufficient features of this self-relation? Philosophers have offered a wide range of competing answers to this question.
    Found 3 days, 1 hour ago on Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  7. 355676.758911
    In ‘Freedom and Resentment’ P. F. Strawson argues that reactive attitudes like resentment and indignation cannot be eliminated altogether, because doing so would involve exiting interpersonal relationships altogether. I describe an alternative to resentment: a form of moral sadness about wrongdoing that, I argue, preserves our participation in interpersonal relationships. Substituting this moral sadness for resentment and indignation would amount to a deep and far-reaching change in the way we relate to each other – while keeping in place the interpersonal relationships, which, Strawson rightfully believes, cannot be eliminated.
    Found 4 days, 2 hours ago on David Goldman's site
  8. 369849.758924
    International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
    Found 4 days, 6 hours ago on PhilPapers
  9. 437569.758937
    Louis Pierre Althusser (1918–1990) was one of the most influential Marxist philosophers of the 20th Century. As they seemed to offer a renewal of Marxist thought as well as to render Marxism philosophically respectable, the claims he advanced in the 1960s about Marxist philosophy were discussed and debated worldwide. Due to apparent reversals in his theoretical positions, to the ill-fated facts of his life, and to the historical fortunes of Marxism in the late twentieth century, this intense interest in Althusser’s reading of Marx did not survive the 1970s. Despite the comparative indifference shown to his work as a whole after these events, the theory of ideology Althusser developed within it has been broadly deployed in the social sciences and humanities and has provided a foundation for much “post-Marxist” philosophy.
    Found 5 days, 1 hour ago on Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  10. 437575.75895
    In Japan, Confucianism stands, along with Buddhism, as a major religio-philosophical teaching introduced from the larger Asian cultural arena at the dawn of civilization in Japanese history, roughly the mid-sixth century. Unlike Buddhism which ultimately hailed from India, Confucianism was first and foremost a distinctly Chinese teaching. It spread, however, from Han dynasty China, into Korea, and then later entered Japan via, for the most part, the Korean peninsula. In significant respects, then, Confucianism is the intellectual force defining much of the East Asian identity of Japan, especially in relation to philosophical thought and practice.
    Found 5 days, 1 hour ago on Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  11. 437582.758963
    Giacomo (Jacopo) Zabarella (b. 1533 in Padua, d. 1589 in Padua) is considered the prime representative of Renaissance Italian Aristotelianism. Known most of all for his writings on logic and methodology, Zabarella was an alumnus of the University of Padua, where he received his Ph.D. in philosophy. Throughout his teaching career at his native university, he also taught philosophy of nature and science of the soul (De anima). Among his main works are the collected logical works Opera logica (1578) and writings on natural philosophy, De rebus naturalibus (1590). Zabarella was an orthodox Aristotelian seeking to defend the scientific status of theoretical natural philosophy against the pressures emanating from the practical disciplines, i.e., the art of medicine and anatomy.
    Found 5 days, 1 hour ago on Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  12. 437780.758976
    Modern medicine is often said to have originated with 19th century germ theory, which attributed diseases to particular bacterial contagions. The success of this theory is often associated with an underlying principle referred to as the “doctrine of specific etiology,” which refers to the theory’s specificity at the level of disease causation or etiology. Despite the perceived importance of this doctrine the literature lacks a clear account of the types of specificity it involves and why exactly they matter. This paper argues that the 19th century germ theory model involves two types of specificity at the level of etiology. One type receives significant attention in the literature, but its influence on modern medicine has been misunderstood. A second type is present in this model, but it has been overlooked in the extant literature. My analysis clarifies how these types of specificity led to a novel conception of etiology, which continues to figure in medicine today.
    Found 5 days, 1 hour ago on PhilSci Archive
  13. 552854.758989
    Karl Leonhard Reinhold (1757–1823), Austrian philosopher and first occupant of the chair on Critical Philosophy established at the University of Jena in 1787, first achieved fame as a proponent of popular Enlightenment and as an early and effective popularizer of the Kantian philosophy. During his period at the University of Jena (1787–94), Reinhold proclaimed the need for a more “scientific” and systematic presentation of the Critical philosophy, one based upon a single, self-evident first principle. In an effort to satisfy this need, he expounded his own “Elementary Philosophy” in a series of influential works between 1789 and 1791.
    Found 6 days, 9 hours ago on Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  14. 592116.759002
    [The following is a guest post by Bob Lockie. — JS]He who says that all things happen of necessity can hardly find fault with one who denies that all happens by necessity; for on his own theory this very argument is voiced by necessity (Epicurus 1964: XL).Lockie, Robert. …
    Found 6 days, 20 hours ago on The Brains Blog
  15. 607392.759018
    For the past few weeks, people on- and offline have spoken up to question Winston Churchill’s legacy. They generally highlight his racism, his support for the use of concentration camps, his treatment of Ireland, his complicity in the Bengal famine, and more. …
    Found 1 week ago on Justice Everywhere
  16. 726101.759033
    In my book Understanding Scientific Progress (Maxwell 2017), I argue that fundamental philosophical problems about scientific progress, above all the problem of induction, cannot be solved granted standard empiricism (SE), a doctrine which most scientists and philosophers of science take for granted. A key tenet of SE is that no permanent thesis about the world can be accepted as a part of scientific knowledge independent of evidence. For a number of reasons, we need to adopt a rather different conception of science which I call aim-oriented empiricism (AOE). This holds that we need to construe physics as accepting, as a part of theoretical scientific knowledge, a hierarchy of metaphysical theses about the comprehensibility and knowability of the universe, these theses becoming increasingly insubstantial as we go up the hierarchy. Fundamental philosophical problems about scientific progress, including the problems of induction, theory unity, verisimilitude and scientific discovery, which cannot be solved granted SE, can be solved granted AOE.
    Found 1 week, 1 day ago on PhilSci Archive
  17. 763715.759047
    A proper understanding of the moral and political significance of migration requires a focus on global inequalities. More specifically, it requires a focus on those global inequalities that affect people’s ability to participate in the production of economic goods and non-economic goods (e.g., relationships of intimacy and care, opportunities for self-expression, well-functioning institutions, etc.). We call cooperative infrastructures the complex material and immaterial technologies that allow human beings to cooperate in order to generate human goods. By enabling migrants to access high-quality cooperative infrastructures, migration contributes to the diffusion of technical and socio-political innovations; in this way, it positively affects the ability of individuals from poorer countries to participate in the production of human goods. However, migration can also damage the material and immaterial components of the cooperative infrastructures accessible in both host countries and sending countries; these potential downsides of migration should not be ignored, although arguably they can often be neutralized, alleviated, or compensated.
    Found 1 week, 1 day ago on Matteo Mameli's site
  18. 898583.75906
    John Austin is considered by many to be the creator of the school of analytical jurisprudence, as well as, more specifically, the approach to law known as “legal positivism.” Austin’s particular command theory of law has been subject to pervasive criticism, but its simplicity gives it an evocative power that continues to attract adherents.
    Found 1 week, 3 days ago on Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  19. 898589.759073
    Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe was one of the most gifted philosophers of the twentieth century. Her work continues to strongly influence philosophers working in action theory and moral philosophy. Like the work of her friend Ludwig Wittgenstein, Anscombe’s work is marked by a keen analytic sensibility.
    Found 1 week, 3 days ago on Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  20. 898595.759086
    [Editor's Note: The following new entry by Ana María Mora-Márquez replaces the former entry on this topic by the previous author.] Simon of Faversham († 1306) was a thirteenth-century scholar, mainly known as a commentator on Aristotle’s logic and natural philosophy. He is considered a modist, among other things because of his use of the notions of modi praedicandi and modi essendi in his commentary on Aristotle’s Categories (cf. Marmo 1999). Simon’s work as an Aristotelian commentator heavily relies on Albert the Great’s paraphrases on the Aristotelian corpus. Simon’s question-commentaries often portray key medieval discussions in a somewhat undeveloped state.
    Found 1 week, 3 days ago on Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  21. 898920.759112
    This contribution is devoted to addressing the question as to whether the methodology followed in building/assessing string theory can be considered scientific – in the same sense, say, that the methodology followed in building/assessing the Standard Model of particle physics is scientific – by fo-cussing on the ”founding” period of the theory. More precisely, its aim is to argue for a positive answer to the above question in the light of a historical analysis of the early developments of the string theoretical framework. The paper’s main claim is a simple one: there is no real change of scientific status in the way of proceeding and reasoning in fundamental physical research. Looking at the developments of quantum field theory and string theory since their very beginning, one sees the very same strategies at work both in theory building and theory assessment. Indeed, as the history of string theory clearly shows (see Cappelli et al., 2012), the methodology characterising the theoretical process leading to the string idea and its successive developments is not significantly different from the one characterising many fundamental developments in theoretical physics which have been crowned with successful empirical confirmation afterwards (sometimes after a considerable number of years, as exemplified by the story of the Higgs particle).
    Found 1 week, 3 days ago on PhilSci Archive
  22. 938603.759138
    The central question of my paper is whether there is a coherent logical theory in which truth is construed in epistemic terms and in which also some version of the law of excluded middle is defended. Brentano in his later writings has such a theory. My first question is whether his theory is consistent. I also make a comparison between Brentano’s view and that of an intuitionist at the present day, namely Per Martin-Löf. Such a comparison might provide some insight into what is essential to a theory that understands truth in epistemic terms.
    Found 1 week, 3 days ago on PhilPapers
  23. 956240.759153
    Dom Robert Desgabets (1610–1678) was an early defender and teacher of the Cartesian philosophy at St. Maur in the region of Lorraine, France. He was born in Ancemont and in 1636 became a monk in the Benedictine order. He taught theology at Saint-Evre at Toul between 1635–1655, and served as Procurer General of Mihiel to Paris during 1648–49. Although he is little-known today, he played an important role in the development and transmission of the Cartesian philosophy, especially in Paris and Toulouse. He is best known for his role in the theological controversy over the Cartesian explication of the Eucharist (Desgabets, 1671), and for his defense of Nicolas Malebranche against the skeptic Simon Foucher (Desgabets, 1675).
    Found 1 week, 4 days ago on Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  24. 956252.759166
    Antoine Le Grand (1629–1699) was a philosopher and catholic theologian who played an important role in propagating the Cartesian philosophy in England during the latter half of the seventeenth century. He was born in Douai, (at the time under rule by the Spanish Hapsburgs), and early in life was associated with an English community of Franciscans who had a college there. Le Grand became a Franciscan Recollect friar prior to leaving for England as a missionary in 1656. In England, he taught philosophy and theology, advocating Catholicism and eventually Cartesianism, the latter being as unpopular as the former was perilous.
    Found 1 week, 4 days ago on Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  25. 956307.759178
    The word ‘pluralism’ generally refers to the view that there are many of the things in question (concepts, scientific world views, discourses, viewpoints etc.) The issues arising from there being many differ widely from subject area to subject area. This entry is concerned with moral pluralism—the view that there are many different moral values. Moral value pluralism should be distinguished from political pluralism. Political pluralism, which, like moral value pluralism, is often referred to as ‘value pluralism’, is a view associated with political liberalism. Political pluralism is concerned with the question of what sort of restrictions governments can put on people’s freedom to act according to their values.
    Found 1 week, 4 days ago on Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  26. 956342.759192
    Newton’s success sharpened our understanding of the nature of space and time in the XVII century. Einstein’s special and general relativity improved this understanding in the XX century. Quantum gravity is expected to take a step further, deepening our understanding of space and time, by grasping of the implications for space and time of the quantum nature of the physical world. The best way to see what happens to space and time when their quantum traits cannot be disregarded is to look how this actually happens in a concrete theory of quantum gravity. Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) [1–7] is among the few current theories sufficiently developed to provide a complete and clear-cut answer to this question. Here I discuss the role(s) that space and time play in LQG and the version of these notions required to make sense of a quantum gravitational world. For a detailed discussion, see the first part of the book [ ]. A brief summary of the structure of LQG is given in the Appendix, for the reader unfamiliar with this theory.
    Found 1 week, 4 days ago on PhilSci Archive
  27. 956371.759204
    Kant’s doctrine of transcendental idealism, as put forth in the first Critique, is best understood as a conceptual or epistemic doctrine. However critics of the conceptual understanding of transcendental idealism argue that it amounts to an arbitrary stipulation and that it does not do justice to the real ontological distinctions that mattered for Kant. Some stipulations are better than others, however. In this paper I argue that Kant’s doctrine, though it should be understood ‘merely epistemically’, is nevertheless full of significance and is motivated through his long-running pre-critical struggle to discover first principles for metaphysical cognition. I further argue that an epistemic understanding of the doctrine of transcendental idealism provides a Kantian with a natural way of understanding the novel epistemic situation presented to us by modern physics and in particular by quantum mechanics. And I argue that considering Kant’s philosophy in the light of the challenges posed by quantum mechanics illuminates, in return, several elements of his philosophical framework, notably the principle of causality, the doctrine of synthetic a priori principles in general, and most generally: the conceptual understanding of transcendental idealism itself. I illustrate this via an analysis of the views of the physicist Niels Bohr as well the views of the (neo-)Kantian philosopher Grete Hermann.
    Found 1 week, 4 days ago on PhilSci Archive
  28. 990790.759217
    There is an ambiguity in the fundamental concept of deductive logic that went unnoticed until the middle of the 20th Century. Sorting it out has led to profound mathematical investigations with applications in complexity theory and computer science. The origins of this ambiguity and the history of its resolution deserve philosophical attention, because our understanding of logic stands to benefit from an appreciation of their details.
    Found 1 week, 4 days ago on Curtis Franks's site
  29. 1071796.75923
    Constantin Brancusi. Socrates Image © The Museum of Modern Art; Licensed by Scala/Art Resource, NY ©2005 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/ADAGP, Paris reproduced with permission of the Brancusi Estate The philosopher Socrates remains, as he was in his lifetime (469–399 B.C.E. ),[ 1 ] an enigma, an inscrutable individual who, despite having written nothing, is considered one of the handful of philosophers who forever changed how philosophy itself was to be conceived. All our information about him is second-hand and most of it vigorously disputed, but his trial and death at the hands of the Athenian democracy is nevertheless the founding myth of the academic discipline of philosophy, and his influence has been felt far beyond philosophy itself, and in every age.
    Found 1 week, 5 days ago on Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  30. 1071803.759243
    Inspired by his reading of Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762–1814) developed during the final decade of the eighteenth century a radically revised and rigorously systematic version of transcendental idealism, which he called Wissenschaftslehre of “Doctrine of Scientific Knowledge.” Perhaps the most characteristic, as well as most controversial, feature of the Wissenschaftslehre (at least in its earlier and most influential version) is Fichte’s effort to ground his entire system upon the bare concept of subjectivity, or, as Fichte expressed it, the “pure I.” During his career at the University of Jena (1794–1799) Fichte erected upon this foundation an elaborate transcendental system that embraced the philosophy of science, ethics, philosophy of law or “right.” and philosophy of religion.
    Found 1 week, 5 days ago on Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy